Connecting with Satellites
One of the big problems with technologies like DSL and cable modems is that they require you to be roughly within 18,000 feet of some central office. Cable modems really don’t have an 18,000 foot limitation. They do have a limitation, but it’s really kind of invisible to us as users. Well, we can’t all do that and that’s where technologies like satellite really make the difference. This is a satellite receiver and well I should add, let me be more accurate, this is a satellite transmitter and receiver.
And this is fairly typical of the internet-based satellite connections that you can get. Satellite isn’t nearly as fast as DSL and cable. Usually topping out at best maybe about three megabits per second. And that’s synchronous. However, that information’s a bit dated. Today’s satellites are asynchronous with downloads which we can see around 12 megabits per second and uploads around three megabits per second. When you can’t get anything else, as long as you can see a satellite you can use a satellite receiver. Now, the satellite itself, in terms of the receiver, isn’t too terribly interesting.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Satellite communication
We have technicians who will come out, and they’ll install this and point it at the right satellite and get it up and running for us. But coming out of this guy are two RG6 cables. One for the transmission and one for receiving. And they go over to the satellite modem. So, here’s the satellite modem, if you look in the front it’s not too terribly exciting. But in the back you’ll see we’ve got two connections. These are F-type connections, one for transmit, one receives and we plug this in. And then we’ve got power. And then, right here, we just have a nice little RJ45 connection.
So it really works out incredibly well. The concept of modem works pretty much the same for DSL, cable, satellite. You got something that plugs us into our technology but the end result is that it always comes out as an RJ45. There’s one term on the network plugs you might wanna be aware of and that’s called satellite latency. Even though you might reach a certain speed with satellite, simply because of the vast distance involved you may find yourself in a situation where the satellites are a little bit slow on the response, simply because it’s a long way up and a long way down.
Principles of Ethical Hacking
The word hacker was first used at MIT in 1960. During that time, a group of computer science students were working on artificial intelligence. Most likely, these talented young individuals would “hack” at a problem until they had a solution. The term hacker was not associated with any malice. However, as time has passed, when someone refers to a hacker, it often has negative connotations. Many think of a hacker as someone who is trying to break into a system to steal information or release malware.
There are several subcultures of hacking groups. All have different attitudes and goals. Many times, a layman will group all hackers under the term hacker. But there is a difference. The three main types of hackers are black hat, white hat, and gray hat. Black hat hackers are considered to be the bad guys. A black hat hacker may be referred to as a “cracker,” as they might try to crack the code or crack a password. A black hat has an objective to cause harm by engaging in criminal activity.
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Many times, they’re backed by organized crime or nation states. The black hat operates on the dark side of the Internet, damaging organizations, spreading unsavory content, and threaten governments with cyber terrorism. And they can cripple a victim’s financial and well-being. White hat hackers are considered to be the good guys and are “ethical hackers.” The white hat hacker has a supportive government and industry and is computer experts.
Many times, they are contract employees hired by security companies and are trained to test systems and attempt to break into them. But they can also be an internal team conducting regular penetration testing as part of an overall security plan. Ethical hackers diligently look for any system vulnerabilities in the computer’s defense system, where, once identified, is reported and fixed either by the white hat team or the appropriate IT personnel, with the idea of improving a company’s defense posture.
A gray hat hacker sits between the good guys and the bad guys in that they may try to gain access to a system without permission, but in general, without malice. They want to see if they can access a system. A gray hat hacker will many times, notify an organization in some manner that their system was vulnerable. Black hat hackers have a large arsenal of software tools, malware, and social engineering techniques that are used to breach a system.
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Anyone, either internally or externally, with proper motivation and the right situation, has the potential to become a hacker. That is where the idea of a white hat, or ethical hacking, comes into play. Ethical hacking enables an organization to fine-tune their security posture, educate their staff, and implement security practices that protect critical systems and sensitive data. Ethical hacking can be done in-house by a trained IT professional or outsourced.
As outsourcing may be expensive, a company may choose to do an ethical hacking assessment in-house. If done in-house, select an appropriate candidate. Although someone might self-identify as a potential white hat hacker, take care in making your selection. Recommendations include selecting someone who understands the skills required. Ethical hackers uncover vulnerable entry points before attackers have a chance to exploit them. They have patience and persistence.
Not only do ethical hackers need to find vulnerabilities; they must suggest and/or implement mechanisms in order to reduce the threat. Ongoing training is essential. They respect the code of good conduct. The term ethical implies the candidate understands what is right and what is wrong.They understand that checking and reporting only to team members and management and not to a group of friends at a bar after hours, thus possibly compromising the security of an organization.
And they’re a professional team member in that the ethical hacker is proficient in communicating any discoveries and will work with all team members to ensure a comprehensive approach that supports the overall security plan. Ethical hacking continues to evolve and is gaining attention as an essential security practice that every organization should perform on a regular basis
Smartphones and tablets usually have builtin microphones and cameras, which means with the right app, you can use them for video chats and even video conferencing. In this chapter, we’ll talk about several apps for doing both video and audio calls. Each of these tools works differently and are valuable in different scenarios. In this movie, we’ll start with Skype. Skype works great for both audio and video calls. Using your smartphone or tablet, you can call other Skype users, whether they’re on a computer or a mobile device. You can also do group audio calls, but you cannot do group video calls from a mobile device.
Skype also supports audio calls to traditional phones. Using Skype on your tablet or smartphone,you can call somebody on a regular telephone. All of the features of Skype are free, except for when you call a telephone. I’m going to launch Skype here. Skype is a free download from the iOS App Store and the Google Play Store. You’ll need to have an account to use Skype. You can set up a free account, or if you already have a Microsoft account, you can log in with that. So I’ll log in here.
Between iPads, iPhones, Android phones, and Android tablets, each version of Skype will look a little different. The functionality is mostly the same, but there are little differences on each device.So we’re going to see Skype here on an iPhone, but you may need to hunt around and find the right controls on a different device. So if I swipe through here on the main screen, I can go through different sections. Recent shows me the most recent list of people I’ve talked to, then I’ve got my Favorites section, but I want to go to People.
This is my list of contacts. This is the list of people that I can call on Skype, and that’s the first thing I want to do. I want to call somebody. But since I don’t have anybody in my contacts, I need to add them. To do that, I’ll need to search for the person I want to talk to in the Skype database and add them as a contact. Now, of course, they will need to have a Skype account already set up. So I’m going to tap on the button in the bottom, right corner, and I’ll choose Add People. And I want to talk to my friend Jim.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of VoIP
Disadvantages of VoIP
Now, Jim plays basketball, so he set up the username Jim Sanders MVP because he is an MVP at basketball. So that’s his username, I’ll do a search, it finds him in the Skype database, so I’m going to go ahead and add him as a contact. I’ll tap on him there, and I need to send a contact request, which I’ll do here. So now I’m just waiting for him to accept this request. I’m going to take a step back by hitting the button in the top, left.
I see Jim on my list here, but since he has not accepted my request, he does not show up as online and accessible. Now that Jim has accepted my request, we’re now connected, and I can see that he’s online. And if I tap on him, it says You and Jim Landers are now contacted. So now that Jim is a contact, I can call him. Since I’ve already selected him, I see his information here down at the bottom of the screen. I can choose to do a video call or an audio call. They both work pretty much the same, so let’s do a video call.
So I’ll tap on that button, and it’s going to call him. And now my camera is running so I can frame up my shot here. And in a moment, he will answer, and there he is. Hey, Jim, thanks for helping me out with this. So while I’m talking to Jim, I have some buttons down on the bottom of the screen.You see they faded away, but if I tap on the screen, they’ll pop up again. So I can mute my audio if I want just by hitting the mute button here. I’m going to unmute my audio by tapping that again. I could disable my camera as well just by hitting the camera button, and now we’re just on a chat where I can see him and he can hear me and I can hear him but he won’t see me.
Let me turn my camera back on; and, of course, when I’m done, I can just hit the hang up button.That’s the red button there. Now, before I hang up, Jim, can you call me right back? I want to see what this looks like when you call me. All right, good. So let me go ahead and hang up here, and now the call is done and I can hit the back button here and I’m back to my list of people. Now, in a moment Jim will call me, and we’ll see what it looks like when I receive an incoming call. So now that call is coming in from Jim.
Now, if I don’t want to answer this call, I could just hit the red button. If I want to answer it but I only want to use audio, I don’t want to show video, then I could hit the green button in the middle.But I want to do video and audio, so I’ll hit the camera button here and that answers the call. And in a moment, we’ll be connected. All right, and there he is again. Thanks a lot for helping me, Jim. I think we’re all set. All right, so I’m going to hang up this call. I bring up the onscreen controls just by tapping on the screen, and then I’ll hit the red button. So those are the basics.
I can also use Skype to have a text chat with one of my contacts. So here on the screen, where I’m looking at Jim’s information, I can just tap on this field that says type a message. And then I’ll hit the Send button and that message has been sent to him. And when he responds, I’ll see his response pop up here. Finally, I want to talk about calling an actual telephone. This feature is particularly useful when you’re traveling to a place where you won’t have a cellular phone connection, but you will have wifi.
This is often referred to as Voice Over IP or VOIP. Using this feature, you can call a regular phone as long as you can connect to Skype on your mobile device. This is the one feature that is not free. It’s much cheaper to call somebody using Skype than any traditional long distance charge. To get an idea of the pricing options, check out this website. You can log in with your Skype account on this website to add credit to your account. Or back in the app, I’m going to leave this conversation, I’ll hit my account button up in the top-right, and there’s an option here for Skype credit.
I’m currently at $0.00, but if I tap on that, I can add credit. Now this would be an in-app purchase if I do it on the phone, which means it will charge my iTunes account but I’m going to do that. I’m going to hit Add $4.99 credit, it’s going to charge the credit card that I already set up with the iOS App Store, it’s going to ask for my password for confirmation, I have to confirm this in-app purchase, which is fine, I’ll hit Buy. Now that I’ve purchased some credit, it shows that I have $4.99 in credit that I can use to place calls to regular phones.
So now I’m going to take a step back to the regular Skype interface. To make a call to a regular phone, down at the bottom of the screen, there’s a dialer button. That’s the one in the middle on the left, So I tap on that. Now, I could just dial a regular phone number, or there’s a button up at the top that links directly to the address book on my device. So if I tap on that, I can see all the people in my address book. I’m going to find Josh, I’m going to call him, so I tap on that.
And from here, I can just tap on his phone number, and then I can just hit the phone button down at the bottom and it will dial him. In a moment, he’ll answer the phone, and we can have a conversation just as if I was using a regular telephone. Hey, Josh, thanks for helping me out. I’m just going to go ahead and hang up now and continue on. So all I need to do here to hang up is just hit the red button at the bottom and I’ll hang up there. So that should give you an idea of the general functions in Skype.
Skype is a great solution for video and audio calls from a mobile device. It’s great because it runs on all mobile devices and computers so it doesn’t matter what platform you’re on. But you do need to keep in mind that group video calls are not available on mobile devices, but everything else works as you might expect.
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Samsung reveals latest technologies in Galaxy series
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This year saw the launch of two major flagship smartphones. The Galaxy Note 7 by Samsung and iPhone 7 and 7+ by Apple. As usual, the latest iPhone came to the market with loyal customers accepting the new model and android users doing all they can to push it down. The iPhone launch was never a big hit with Samsung Galaxy series. But, the companies latest flagship smartphone Galaxy Note 7 created a huge negative impact on the company’s market share. (more…)